Moving forward or running in place: Kentucky health care leaders discuss revenues a year and half after Kentucky’s Kynect and Medicaid expansion

Originally published in the September 2015 edition of The Lane Report


Over a year and half after the launch of Kynect, Kentucky’s lauded health insurance exchange program, and the Medicaid expansion program, the Commonwealth is among the nation’s leaders in reducing its population of uninsured residents. Across the board, Kentucky hospitals are providing more services to more people which, one naturally assumes, leads to improved revenues.

Mike Rust, CEO of the Kentucky Hospital Association (KHA), echoed this assumption to an extent. “Many of the state’s health care systems are experiencing an overall improvement in their financial positions” in the last 18 months, he said. A good deal of credit for this improvement goes to the insurance mandates in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Performance varies among institutions, but from a broad perspective, revenues are up and, in some cases, “by a significant margin,” he said.

There are, however, exceptions to this news, added Elizabeth Cobb, KHA Vice President of Health Policy and a member of the board of directors for the Kentucky Rural Health Association (KRHA). Some rural hospitals are still struggling to keep their doors open despite increased numbers of payers and a related reduction in uncompensated care, she said.

Nevertheless, from a broad perspective, Kentucky is well ahead of its neighbor states in realizing many of the ACA’s early goals. Audrey Tayse Haynes, Secretary of the Cabinet for Health and Family Services (CHFS), takes great pride in the numerous reports that show Kentucky leads its region, and the nation in some measures, in reducing the numbers of the uninsured.

A report published in the first quarter of 2015 by The Foundation for a Healthy Kentucky showed that the numbers of uninsured nationally dropped to about 12.9 percent of the population in December 2014. In that same time period, Kentucky’s uninsured stood at an estimated 9.8 percent, a 10.4 percentage point drop in the uninsured from 2013, according to a Gallup-Healthways survey.

There are many more encouraging statistics from the last year and half, Haynes said. According to CHFS estimates, improvements in the number of uninsured people in the Commonwealth have introduced approximately $2.2 billion new dollars into the health care industry, $1 billion of which has been shared among the state’s hospitals.

“That’s money going directly into the health care system, not to the recipients” she pointed out. The ACA’s influence is also credited to the creation of approximately 11,900 new jobs in professional health care and social work sectors, Haynes said.

But a year and half is still a very short period of time. While on the surface Kentucky hospitals are doing better financially, a finer-tuned analysis of hospital revenues reveal some cracks in the program. Most notable is the major shift in payer-mix engendered by the Medicaid expansion program, which paints a different and much more complex portrait of the financial health of Kentucky’s systems.


Sheila Currans, CEO of Harrison Memorial Hospital in Cynthiana, and Carl Herde, Chief Financial Officer for the Baptist Health System acknowledge that Kentucky’s efforts to reduce the ranks of the uninsured has made positive strides, but the rapid increase in the state’s Medicaid rolls pose a new set of challenges to hospitals across Kentucky.

“When it’s said that revenues are up, it’s a relative term,” Herde said. “We are seeing more patients, doing more services, and, certainly, our charges are up. But we are also experiencing a significant shift in our payer mix. If you are caring for the same or more patients, but not getting the same as you used to get for services, it creates an operational challenge.”

Medicaid Expansion grows faster than expected

A critical variable in assessing hospital revenues is its payer mix, Currans explained. In the simplest terms, the payer mix is the comparative ratio of patients with commercial insurance coverage, Medicaid/Medicare or other forms of government reimbursement, and those few who still self-pay.

“The payer mix in our service area [the Harrison County region] is naturally going to be different from what hospitals in Louisville, Paducah, or other Kentucky communities may see. Payer mix is directly associated with community’s specific demographics,” she continued.

Since the expansion, Currans and Herde noted a significant shift in their respective health systems’ payer mix.

“Though our [HMH’s] population is mostly Medicare/Medicaid, we used to have a higher percentage of commercial insurance than we’ve seen lately. There has been a clear shift in our payer mix to more Medicaid patients,” Currans said. Taking into consideration that Medicaid reimburses between 70 – 80 percent of charges, the anticipated cuts affect revenues even if total patient volume is up.

The KHA has noted an inverse relationship between the steep reduction in Kentucky’s uninsured in the last year and a half and the increase in Medicaid rolls, said Cobb. The difference, she noted, has a larger impact on rural hospitals whose Medicaid/Medicare patient populations are proportionately larger than those in urban hospitals. While hospitals may be seeing more patients and performing more services, “it’s important to remember that Medicaid doesn’t cover 100 percent of the costs of care,” she said.

With regard to Baptist Health’s holdings, Herde said that he was not seeing much difference between its rural and urban hospitals. As an administrator tasked with oversight of Baptist’s “bottom line,” there was a slightly better margin with commercial insurance than with Medicaid.

“For a small percentage of our insured patients, we had a margin that we now don’t have,” Herde said.

The CHFS publishes a weekly tally of the total numbers of Medicaid recipients as reported from the six Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) contracted to manage the program. The report on August 17 listed numbers at just over 1.27 million, or about 25 percent of the Commonwealth’s total population, said Secretary Haynes. That total number includes about 500,000 children under age 18 and the state’s population of people with permanent disabilities.

The expansion welcomed about 310,000 individuals during the first enrollment period. Counts have fluctuated since, Haynes continued, but the average has been around 400,000 or less. In addition, the state estimates that another 110,000 have enrolled in commercial health plans through Kynect. About 75 percent of those were among the uninsured, she said.

“When the state began enrolling people into medical coverage, the Medicaid numbers did exceed our initial expectations, but the numbers have been stable since,” Haynes commented. The area of the state with the highest enrollment in both Medicaid and commercial insurance is eastern Kentucky, which had been an area noted for having the highest number of uninsured, she said.

There is speculation that the influx of Medicaid patients may include low income individuals and families who had formerly been covered by commercial insurance through an employer. That migration away from insurance coverage to Medicaid further skews payer mixes toward the government program. While there has been no study to substantiate the claim, the shift in payer mix has led Currans and Herde to make the assumption that the phenomenon has occurred.

“It seems as though we’re seeing more Medicaid patients in our service areas than have been converted from the ranks of the uninsured,” Herde said.

Bad Debt

In a KHA report to the CHFS earlier in 2015, uncompensated care, or provided care for which no payment is received, showed a dramatic decline in rate through 2014. The influence of Kynect and Medicaid expansion is credited for reducing those charges that are usually left hanging on the balance sheet.

“The KHA’s mission is to work with hospitals and the state to ensure that Kentuckians get access to the care and coverage they need to be a healthier population,” Rust commented. To a significant extent, the direction health care has taken in the last year represent positive steps toward realizing that mission. Although uncompensated care has reached new lows, the incidence of bad debt to hospitals is actually on the rise.

The intent of the ACA is to make quality health care more affordable to a greater number of people, said Rust, but despite improvements, there still is an issue of under-insured individuals. These are people who opt for cheaper health insurance plans that also come with high deductibles. The issue is mainly concerned with families with lower incomes that are just above the level at which they would qualify for Medicaid.

“In general, there are two type of folks who buy high deductible insurance plans with cheaper premiums: Young people who imagine they’re in good health and don’t need expensive health coverage and those persons who simply can’t afford to pay the premiums of a high end insurance plan,” Herde said. “If that person or family can’t afford high premiums, then they’re not going to able to afford the high deductible either.”

Acknowledging that the rise in patient liability is a challenge to address, Secretary Haynes argued that the issue is not insurmountable and it’s better than what hospitals were enduring before.

“It’s a lot better for both the patient and hospital to try and work out a payment plan to cover a $5,000 deductible than writing off debts of over $100,000 in cases of injury or a catastrophic illness,” Haynes responded.

Rust agreed. “At least a portion of that debt is getting paid.”

But there are still individuals who have, for a variety of reasons, not yet signed on to an insurance plan or taken advantage of Medicaid eligibility.

“In any given month of the last two years, about 2-3 percent of our patients are still essentially self-pay,” Currans said. “We try to offer assistance to get them signed up through the exchange, but patients have to be proactive and ask for that help. So we still have a lingering problem with charges we write off because of our commitment and obligation to provide high quality care,” Currans said.

These are concerns with which Currans and Herde regularly deal when analyzing their respective organizations’ balance sheets. But they do it with the understanding that delivering and sustaining a high level of health care quality is their primary mission.

Changing Strategies for the future and controlling ER overuse

Nobody argues that the system is or ever will be perfect. Aside from the debate over the shift in payer mix, all agreed that there is still ground to cover in reducing the overuse of Emergency Rooms during off-hours.

Among the strategies being tested to address that issue include development of advance triage units to assess, prioritize, and treat critical cases; Baptist Health has opened several medical clinics and urgent treatment centers providing off-hour care to address non-emergent complaints; HMH is considering the same sort of clinic to open adjacent to its ER. The KentuckyOne Health System has introduced yet another potential solution called Anywhere Care which puts patients in touch with a physician or physician extender by video chat or phone for treatment of common ailments.

Looking toward the time when federal coverage of Medicaid costs is passed down to the state, everyone is adopting a wait and see attitude. For Currans and Herde, they expect that hospitals will, as always, be asked to maintain high levels quality care while managing further reductions in reimbursement.

Managing the demands of quality health care delivery will always requires major expenditures, Herde said. Baptist is currently financing multi-million dollar expansions and renovations of several facilities, implementing an updated computer networking system, keeping up with federal mandates on Electronic Health Records (EHRs), and changing its billing systems to ICD-10 coding which directly impacts hospital revenues. And that list doesn’t even include the purchase and maintenance of the latest clinical technology nor the salaries and benefits of staff and employed physicians.

“Looking to our future, and those of other healthcare systems in the state, there are a lot of headwinds,” he said.

“But this is part of our job as administrators – to manage expenses and make the best use of our revenues to maintain and improve high standards of quality healthcare delivery. I’m proud to be associated with an organization that does this job well,” Herde said. In the last two years, he said Baptist cut about $40 million on supplies, maintenance agreements, contracted services and other operations to run more efficiently.

But hospitals are motivated by greater things than just revenues, Rust said. They’re first priority is providing even higher standards of quality health care than today.

“We’re seeing hospitals changing their care settings to be more proactive around wellness,” Cobb observed. Rust added that small and large hospitals are also getting benefits from partnering even closer with health departments to reduce re-admissions through follow-ups.

Haynes acknowledges that there are challenges ahead, but that the direction that Kentucky health care has taken in the last year and half amount to more positives than negatives for the patient and the provider. “Hospitals are using this time to analyze their service delivery and business models to take advantage of ACA’s emphasis on improving population health rather than reactively treating illness,” Haynes said.

Furthermore, she believes that the program is capable of sustaining itself in the long run. Furthermore, staying the course in long term will have eventually result in a healthier Kentucky population and an active economic engine moving the Commonwealth’s health care enterprises forward.

“I think the CHFS is playing an important part in fostering the type of market competition among the state’s health systems that promote invention and innovation,” she said. “By expanding coverage, we are creating a buyer’s market and introducing more transparency in health care delivery.”

Faced with teen’s disappointment, parents shocked to discover they don’t give a damn


Faced with his son’s bitter disappointment Sunday night at having to wait one more day to get the latest Samsung at the T-Mobile shop, Dan Miller, 45, expected to feel a sense of impotence and self-recrimination for leaving his wallet at home.

What a surprise, then, when Dan discovered he really didn’t give a damn.

In fact, Dan found the tantrum his son, Darry, threw in the parking lot rather hilarious.

“I had no idea Darry could be that funny,” Miller chortled. “In hindsight, the timing could not have been better. The smart phone box was in his hand when I told him I’d forgotten my wallet. His face turned this shade of cherry red. With his blonde hair, his head looked like a big zit. And then he handed the box back to the clerk and started this shallow panting, almost like an asthmatic wheeze. It was just darling.”

In the parking lot, Darry apparently took it to a whole new level. He jammed his hands in his pockets and muttered something unintelligible under his breath. When his father asked “Ah honey, what’s a’matter?” in an intentionally patronizing tone, Darry snapped. He accused his father of leaving his wallet at home on purpose!

“It was so precious the way he said it. I knew right then I had to escalate this,” Miller commented. “I told him not to worry. We could stop at the Quick-E Mart and pick up a $10 Go-Phone.”

“I DON’T WANT A GO PHONE!” Darry screamed.

‘Idoughwannagophone!” Dan mocked, at which point Darry stamped his left foot, declared he never gets what he wants and his father doesn’t care. Sources close to the incident suggest Darry was right.

“In all my seven months, I’ve never seen anyone react like that,” said Sheila Reynolds, a service rep at T-Mobile who witnessed events from inside the store. “Just watching from the window, I could tell – Mr. Miller really didn’t give a fuck.”

Other witnesses confirmed Reynolds’ account.

“I was concerned at first. Then I saw it was that rude little shit, Darry Miller,” explained May Edwards, 74. “It’s hard to give a damn when it’s a kid like that. But Dan was amazing. The fuck that he didn’t give – it was infectious. It wasn’t long before we were in tears.”

Edwards, joining in, suggested Darry might be happier with cans on a string.

“Darry bolted to the car to sulk after that,” said Miller with an arm over his new friend’s shoulder.

The only thing that worried Dan was how Darry’s mother, Tonya, would take the news. After all, “it takes two to make an irredeemable putz,” he observed.

In a phone interview, Tonya admitted that her knee jerk reaction was to blame Dan for leaving his wallet. But seconds later, she realized she didn’t give a damn either. “All this time, I thought the point of buying your kids things was just to make others jealous. Who would have thought that raising such a selfish prick could be so entertaining? People say we throw the best parties these days.”

Several families in the community acknowledged that the Millers’ dinner parties are the place to be each weekend with Darry’s fits of anger a popular entertainment. The tirade at his 16th birthday party, when the Millers reneged on their promise of a car, is considered legendary.

When asked if this experience would change the way the Millers raise their four younger children, Dan was emphatic.

“Hell no. Where’d be the fun in that?!”

Recovering her wild rainbow

Recovering her wild rainbow

Kristin “Rainbow Dash” Grenier to hike 2,650 mile west coast trail

After months spent recovering from an extended bout with Lyme disease, Kristin “Rainbow Dash” Grenier has decided she needs to get out of the house and take a nice, long walk — of about 2,650 miles.
Grenier will spend the next four to five months hiking the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT). For those who are not familiar with the PCT, it is the west coast’s answer to the Appalachian Trail.

Rainbow Dash seated at her favorite perch on the Appalachian Trail. Photo courtesy of Kristin Grenier.
Rainbow Dash seated at her favorite perch on the Appalachian Trail.
Photo courtesy of Kristin Grenier.

The trail begins in the town of Campo on the border between Mexico and California and ends eight miles across the Canadian border at Manning Park.
It covers the entire length of California, Oregon and Washington and features about every kind of natural landscape imaginable.
The PCT skirts the western edge of the Mojave desert, then runs across the peaks of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. In Washington and Oregon, the path meanders around Crater Lake National Park and runs the Cascade range which contains some of the highest and most famous mountain peaks and active volcanoes in the United States, Grenier said.
While the features of this spectacular wilderness trail are enticing, few experienced hikers have completed the entire PCT. A few years ago it was estimated that more people had been to the top of Mount Everest than had traversed the PCT, she said.
“It has grown a lot in popularity in the last two years thanks to the book ‘Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail’  by author Cheryl Strayed, so that statistic is probably not true anymore. But there will still be plenty of sections where people, and cell phone signals, will be scarce,” she said.

Grenier has embarked on this ambitious journey in part to raise awareness of Lyme disease and to raise money in support of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS). The society supports Lyme disease research and its appropriate treatment.
But the hike is also a highly personal one for the young scientist whose life and passions were sidelined for months due to a case of Lyme disease that went misdiagnosed for nearly 10 months.

If one can pardon the cliche, the PCT is representative of Grenier’s determination to “get back in the saddle” after Lyme disease knocked her from it.
Grenier discovered a love for trail hiking around 2010 while she was living and working up in New Hampshire. As a researcher and Americorps volunteer stationed in the remote New England wilderness, there was not much to do with her free time except join friends for hiking excursions up and down the White Mountains.
Since getting hooked on trail hiking, she has adopted a trail name, Rainbow Dash, and embarked on ever more ambitious hikes. In 2012, before being sidelined with Lyme Disease, she took several months to travel the length of the Appalachian Trail.
Ironically, she believes it was during a brief section hike in Pennsylvania, apart from her full trail hike, that she was bitten by the tick that infected her with Lyme disease.
She didn’t realize it at the time. The only thing she knew is that she just started to exhibit a number of generalized symptoms of an illness that wouldn’t go away. The most prominent side effect was an alarming lack of energy. She suffered from arthritic muscle aches and general body soreness. However, providers were diagnosing other illnesses unrelated to Lyme disease and the treatments were doing no good.
“I didn’t have the textbook symptoms of the disease. I knew I’d been bitten by a tick, but there wasn’t the ‘tell-tale’ red bulls-eye rash that followed,” Grenier said.
She didn’t respond to treatments and her condition grew steadily worse. At her lowest times, Kristin suffered “brain fog” where she became forgetful and erratic in her behavior. She would lose anywhere from 14 – 20 hours of her life at a time.
“I didn’t understand at all what was going on with me,” she said. “I was just scared.”
A fact that she learned after she was correctly diagnosed is that “Lyme is known as the ‘great imitator.’”
According to the ILADS web site, a patient with Lyme might wind up being tested for anything from Lupus to MS to Fibromyalgia. Hundreds of symptoms have been attributed to Lyme disease.
Ticks that carry the disease are mostly deer ticks and incidence rates for Lyme disease are higher in the New England area and around the north central section of the United States around Minnesota and Wisconsin.
But there are risks of contracting the disease in Kentucky and throughout most of the United States, she said.
Grenier’s condition was finally diagnosed in Cynthiana by Dr. Greg Cooper and Crista Crowdy, PA, of Family Care Associates. When tests came back positive for Lyme, she was treated with two months of antibiotic therapy last year and another two months of antibiotics this year.
Thankfully, she has finally begun responding to the treatment. After spending such a long time with the illness, though, Grenier suffers setbacks from time to time.
Even now, she has moments where the bacterial infection asserts itself, Grenier said.
But rather than scaring her from the wilderness, the disease is likely to discover that it has a new enemy in Grenier.
Not only has she planned to return to her love of hiking, but she is using this excursion to gather sponsors and raise money to combat the disease.
She has so far raised over $1,500 in pledges and is open to accept more.
Many of her sponsors are pledging just a penny a mile for an overall contribution of $26.50. But every one of those pennies adds up, she said.
In a touching coda to her travel, Kristin was contacted by a Vermont woman who shared Grenier’s love of wilderness trail hiking. At 30-years-old, the woman contracted Lyme disease and went undiagnosed for 30 years, Grenier said.
When she finally got the treatment she needed, time had got past her. Lyme disease had robbed this woman of something she dearly loved.
If it is at all possible, Grenier said that the woman hopes to join her for the final leg of the journey into Canada.
“I hope that comes to pass,” Grenier said with earnest. “It would be so important.”
Awareness of Lyme disease got a celebrity boost recently from the revelations of pop singer Avril Lavigne, who was recently diagnosed and treated for the disease last year.
That has been a boost to Grenier’s cause and drawn focus to her goal to walk the PCT. She will be keeping regular updates of her progress on Facebook  and on her blog:
She will be glad to accept further pledges of support throughout the summer. While keeping up with her progress, don’t look for Kristin Grenier. Look for her trail name: Rainbow Dash.

Get with it and move on: A desegregation story

Before Bonita Watson agreed to be interviewed about her memories of leaving the all-black Banneker School for Cynthiana High School in 1957, she issued a blanket disclaimer.
<div class="source">Josh Shepherd</div><div class="image-desc">Bonita Watson</div><div class="buy-pic"><a href=";orig=bonita_watson_2703.jpg" target="_new">Buy this photo</a></div>

“It’s been over 50 years since I was in high school. I’m getting on toward 70 now. If I get anything wrong, you just keep that in mind,” she said, smiling and settling into a low seat at the Charles Feix Annex, the temporary home of the Cynthiana-Harrison County Public Library in Kentucky.

She came bearing a program for the only Banneker School reunion ever held. It was in 1988 and she was one of its organizers.

She also brought along her keepsake history of the Cynthiana High School. She leafed through the pages to her graduation year in 1959. In her lifetime, Watson has been witness to the closure of two high schools, both of which are clearly very dear to her heart.

In the spring of 1957, Watson was a freshman at the Banneker School. In the fall, she enrolled as a sophomore at Cynthiana High School just off of Bridge Street overlooking downtown.

She was among the first generation of black students in Harrison County to be integrated with the city school. At the same time, of course, the black county students began attending Harrison County High School.

Over 50 years removed from the event, a discussion of school desegregation naturally conjures up images of the civil rights movement, of protests and resistance and racial violence.

Watson admits to feeling apprehensive in those first few weeks at Cynthiana High School, but there weren’t marches and police lines in Harrison County. It was just kids walking to school.

“I was leaving what I knew. Of course I was nervous. It was a new school with a lot of people I didn’t know very well,” Watson said.

But she also pointed out that she was a teenager in a small Kentucky town. Watson’s concerns were teenager concerns. She was only vaguely aware of the “big picture” politics that surrounded the issue of school desegregation.

The most significant thing she knew was that she would no longer be going to Banneker School. If she was going to go to school — and her parents didn’t give her much choice in that matter, Watson joked — she would be walking across town and up Bridge Street hill to Cynthiana High School.

But this is where the narrative departs from the typical images one has of desegregation. As many point out who also experienced the closure of the Banneker School and the subsequent integration of the Harrison County and Cynthiana schools, there wasn’t much in the way of resistance or protest at the local level.

“One thing that helped is that Cynthiana is a small town. We all knew each other,” Watson said.

However, Watson wasn’t naive either.

“Sports had a lot to do with speeding up integration around here. Banneker School had a lot of good athletes,” Watson said. “Football and basketball was a big key.”

She points to pictures of Sammy Custard, Kenny Page, Baldwin David and Donald Holland in the two classes ahead of her. “They were some of the athletes,” she said, then added in a softer tone. “Most of them are gone now.”

But when thinking about the significant difference between Banneker School and Cynthiana High, Watson touches on something a bit unexpected.

The Banneker School catered to all grades – elementary, middle and high school. The school was not composed just of students from the west side of Cynthiana and in sections of Harrison County. Kids from Pendleton County attended the Banneker School as well.

“You have to remember that there weren’t that many schools for the black population,” she said. “When my father [Jesse Watson] went to school, he couldn’t even graduate in Harrison County. He had to get up early every morning and drive to Western High School in Bourbon County.”

But for her, the Banneker School was just a natural extension of her immediate neighborhood.

Most of her teachers were also her neighbors and fellow church members. And in those days, she said, their authority did not end when the Banneker school bell rang at the end of the day. Nor did it end just because you were no longer a student in their class, she said.

Watson hesitates about naming just one teacher, because they were all good and had an influence on her life. But the first teacher to come to mind was Miss J.T. Gaddie.

Miss J.T. taught grades 1 – 3 and in addition to lessons in reading and math, she had expectations that kids learned manners and what they could say and what they couldn’t say.

If kids smarted off or misbehaved, the parents were called to talk about the problem.

“Anyone who knew her will tell you, it didn’t matter if it was in class or in public Miss J. T. would correct you if you were doing wrong,” Watson laughed. “That was true of a lot of teachers, but especially her. But you know, we could use a few more Miss J.T.s in the world today.”

Watson also mentioned Mary Bryant, the home economics teacher who taught everyday life skills to their kids. And Mary Ann Adams, who may be one of the last living members of the Banneker School faculty.

Having kids from every class in the same school was a bit different from going to Cynthiana High where it was just the older kids.

But even though there was a change in school, the sense of community and of belonging continued.

Even now, she identifies herself closely with the Cynthiana High class of 1959.

“We have always been a tight class. We have reunion events every year,” she said.

When studying the history of school integration in Kentucky and the rest of the country, it is easy to appreciate just how big a change it was and the upheaval that came in areas of the country as a result.

But it was something a bit different for Watson, at least, who was right in the middle of it.

“I’m sure that there was some planning behind the scenes and there were people who were scared about what might happen,” Watson said. “But speaking for me, it was just something I had to go right on and just do.  No one asked us. We just had to get with it and move on.”

Nobody calls Kentucky Christians wimps … least of all New Jersey.

I was confused last week when the Letter to the Editor below arrived at the Cynthiana Democrat. It was critical of our Kentucky legislators and admonished Kentucky Christians for not reacting at the state’s refusal to grant tax incentives to a development group that wanted to only hire professed Christians at their tourist site.

To the editor:

Where are the Christians? How come they are sitting by watching the Kentucky legislators renege on their rebate incentive program offered by the state’s tourism office with Answers in Genesis’ theme park, the Ark Encounter.
If AIG doesn’t get thrown out of this agreement with Kentucky, then they are required to hire atheists and all sorts of non-Christians to work at their theme park. That’s like hiring an atheist as your head pastor.
What’s wrong with you Christians in Kentucky? That wouldn’t even fly in New Jersey. There would be a flood of people in the streets before we would let that happen. AIG wouldn’t be able to give the Gospel at the Ark theme park  either.
What’s wrong with your Kentucky legislators? Don’t you know that AIG is a Christian organization? What do they expect?
You Kentucky Christians are looking like wimps. Stand up for yourselves. Get out there and demand that your legislators do what’s right instead of bowing to pressure by atheist groups outside your state.
We here at the Creation Science Hall of Fame are hoping that we could construct our building somewhere between the Ark Encounter and the Creation Museum. Just think of the revenue these projects will bring to the state of Kentucky. Your gas stations, lodging, stores and restaurants would be booming  with tourists.
Get with it, Kentucky. Do what is right and don’t be afraid  to give an answer for your beliefs in our Lord.

Nick Lally, Chairman,
Board of Directors
Creation Science Hall of Fame
Tranquility, NJ

Thank God for you, Nick Lally, Chair of the Board of Directors of the Creation Science Hall of Fame in Tranquility, New Jersey, for showing me the tough, no-nonsense side of my brother New Jersey Christians.

For those readers who are not aware, the Answers in Genesis (AIG) group, which is responsible for the Creation Museum in Erlanger, Kentucky, is breaking ground on a new tourist attraction, the ARK project, which will be a representation of Noah’s Ark. The ARK project will be a little closer in design to a Disney-influenced amusement park. However, the installation, located about 10 miles south of the museum in neighboring Grant County, will also be an extension of the world view represented by the Creation Museum. The organization also has developed a hiring practice of asking potential employees to not only be Christian, but also to accept their cosmological view of the beginnings of our Universe to the rejection of rival theories of evolution and other heresies.

Now, I was aware of the decision by the Kentucky Tourism, Arts and Heritage Cabinet to turn down a tax rebate application from the Answers in Genesis (AIG) group for their multi-million dollar ARK project in Grant County because the organization was using discriminatory hiring practices and it was espousing ideas that ran counter to the separation of state and church.

I was also aware of the highly coordinated outcry and protests from AIG when their application was denied.
One wonders how much AIG spent on the billboard advertising alone. I find it quite an odd reaction from a group so concerned about losing money when the cabinet’s decision just cost them an estimated $18 million in tax incentive money, according to the news coverage from the Courier Journal.

But this letter wasn’t from the AIG.
It was from the Creation Science Hall of Fame?
Who are these guys?

Well, I haven’t had much time to do any deep digging on the group. But it wasn’t hard to come up with one fact that sheds light on the keen interest the Hall of Fame had in AIG qualifying for a tourism cabinet tax incentive.
The following is from their website:
“We will build the Hall of Fame as a brick-and-mortar structure in northern Kentucky, between Answers in Genesis’ Creation Museum and the new Ark Encounter park.
We also expect all creationists to support this project collectively and with neither bias nor regard to politics or past disagreements.”
Such erudition on the website is quite a contrast from the tone of the letter from the Hall of Fame’s board of directors’ chair.
In response to the reasonable expectation that qualifying for state tax incentives require non-discriminatory hiring practices, Lally writes, “…They [AIG] are required to hire atheists and all sorts of non-Christians to work at their theme park….What’s wrong with you Christians in Kentucky? That wouldn’t even fly in New Jersey … You Kentucky Christians are looking like wimps…”
Lally’s tone sounds, to my ear at least, like some ridiculously cheesy New Jersey goombah stereotype — which is not helped by the fact that New Jersey’s governor is none other than good old fence-riding Chris Christie.
Of course, Lally is attempting to raise the hackles of a particular brand of Kentucky Christian: those that subscribe to the organization’s purported philosophy and world view.
Since this is also a non-profit company that’s looking to piggy-back their planned tourist attraction onto AIG’s Northern Kentucky Creation Science wonderland, I am naturally skeptical of the purity of their faith.
But that’s the journalist in me.
As the letter is addressed to Kentucky Christians in general, and since I consider myself an ardent member of that group, I am moved to respond to Mr. Lally’s challenge.
It should be noted, however, that I do not entirely subscribe to the world view that the Creation Science Museum champions.
Nor am I much bothered by it either.
My faith is based on being raised from infancy in the United Methodist Church, on a critical study of the Bible’s Old and New Testament teaching (NIV and King James versions, mostly) and a personal relationship that I have developed with Jesus Christ and God.
It has nothing to do with anyone else’s relationship with the Almighty and it certainly doesn’t extend toward helping a private developer earn millions in tax incentives while engaging in practices that run counter to state and federal laws regarding discrimination.
Why worry about hiring atheists anyway?
If the Christian mandate is to win new souls to Christ, would not the act of exposing doubters to the tenets of our faith not increase the likelihood of a conversion?
It’s been known to happen in my neck of the woods, Mr. Lally.
Personally, I think the greater act of a wimp is one who prefers preaching to the choir than to the unconverted. I won’t even mention profiting from it and claiming income tax exemptions based on religious grounds.

Or maybe I just did.
This Kentucky Christian does not fear atheists and I have serious doubts that they’re likely to take over the world any time soon. Although, with the major Abraham-based religions at each other’s throats almost constantly, they could probably win the globe by attrition alone.
But with regard to the point of view expressed in the letter last week, I have but one concern. It has been my experience that the act of demonizing a group of people in order to get a tax break is, in itself, the act of a demon.

“An accident wanting to happen” – Ottis Tussey’s experiments in abstract

When asked to describe his style of abstract painting, Ottis Tussey said that his style is “kind of an accident waiting to happen.”

Ottis Tussey at work in his home.
Ottis Tussey at work in his home.

“I surprise myself at times. I start out with this vague idea and then something happens that changes everything or moves me to something else,” said Tussey.
If there is one thing that Tussey enjoys as much as working at his canvas, it is talking about art.
Not his art in particular, though he is happy to share insights into what he perceives are his strengths in the visual arts, but he also enjoys delving into the kinds of things that he enjoys as a spectator as well as a creator.

Whether visiting the museums or churches that house the world’s great masterpieces or perusing the unheralded work of artists in the local art galleries, he has developed an appreciation for the image and the craft on display.
“I love to see the work of talented artists and the incredible things they do. When I visited Rome some years ago and saw works by Michaelangelo and other great Rennaissance artists, there were times when I would just tear up. They could do anything,” Tussey said.
That statement is also true of artists with whom he has come into contact at his home at Lake Carnico in Nicholas County, Kentucky.
“Several of my paintings are at the Z-Gallery in Carlisle [Kentucky]. Louise Zachary’s place features several wonderful paintings as well as  beautiful hand-made quilts and woodworking.
“And then, of course, I have several abstracts at the [Licking Valley Campus, Workforce Solutions] art gallery in Cynthiana, where there is also many beautiful works. I am particularly fond of the paper mosaics that Mrs. [Claire] Muller creates. Those are stunning,” he commented.

“I surprise myself at times. I start out with this vague idea and then something happens that changes everything or moves me to something else,” said Tussey.

Though Ottis Tussey has dabbled in art throughout his life, it has only been within the last five years that he has applied himself to developing his artistic skills.
Tussey prefers to work in abstracts. In the years since he has taken up painting, he has been quite prolific.
“I am not accomplished at drawing figures or detailed images. As I’ve been working, I find that I don’t care so much for portraits or scenes as much as I enjoy the interplay of vivid colors on a canvas,” Tussey said about his work.

Vivid, colorful backgrounds are a hallmark of Tussey’s style, particularly in his recent works.
In fact, there are times, he said, when he has labored so hard to create these colorful backdrops that it takes time to muster the nerve to add anything to the foreground.
“I love the interplay of colors and how they react with each other and with different types of canvas,” he said.
In recent months, he has been working with aluminum foil as a canvas, admiring how the reflective quality changes the nature of his acrylic paints.
In another painting in his home, he achieved an unexpected effect when water from a garden hose splashed against the canvas, creating a fragmented effect to which he was able to add his own designs.
However, some of his most striking abstracts have been captured using glass as his canvas. Several examples of his glass paintings are on display at the art gallery in Cynthiana and unframed at his home.
Perhaps the most important element in his development as a local artist is a level of personal confidence that he has in his work.
“I think I have reached a point where my work has achieved a recognizeable style. It was something that I did not have at the beginning. But these days, one can recognize work that I have done,” Tussey said.

He attributes his growth to a certain discipline in his approach. Though he does not keep a regular schedule of time painting, he makes the effort to be at the easel working on a piece even if he is not particularly inspired to do so.
“I cannot develop if I let things go for too long,” Tussey said.
Regardless of whether he is happy with his work, he also makes an effort to carry a project to its end.
“The hardest thing for me is getting a new idea. I can only paint so many seagulls or random images. When I was getting into this, I thought that I always needed to wait until inspiration happens before starting in on a new painting. But sometimes, it’s just important to get in front of an easel and do something,” Tussey said. “If I don’t like it, I can just as easily paint over it. And having the painting underneath creates some interesting textures that I can use.”
With the coming holiday season, Tussey is following the lead of fellow artist Herby Moore and offering discounts of up to 20 percent on his paintings at the LVC gallery in the Harrison Square Shopping Center in Cynthiana, Kentucky.

“I don’t charge much for my paintings, so this discount is a real bargain for my work,” Tussey said.

How the Philae lander has renewed my faith

As I am writing this blog, I continue to switch between this page and live coverage of the Rosetta Mission, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) attempt to land a probe on a comet.

I won’t know until after I publish this if the project is successful, but I have my fingers crossed.

The images from the control room are mundane. There are banks of flat screen monitors on the wall with words and inscrutable tables of figures too small for me to discern. Not that I would have a single crumb of an idea what they said even if I could read them.
Meanwhile, two or three frumpy scientists of indeterminate age walk about the control room in wrinkled collared shirts and jeans with their security badges swinging back and forth.
A few are seated in front of a bank of computer consoles, but they don’t seem to be doing much.
They look too young to be involved in a project of such historic magnitude.
The room is practically empty even though its about 3 p.m. where they are. There is an estimated two hours left before they know if they’re effort is going to be successful.
Under such circumstances, I expected to see a control room packed wall to ceiling with nervous-looking people pacing. Since its Europe, I also expected to see them chain-smoking.
But the live feed is surprisingly calm.
I should be bored by the coverage, but I’m riveted to my seat. My only regret is that the ensuing press conference about the success or failure of this endeavor will not have the NASA logo featured prominently somewhere in the room.
Its largely because the anticipation of this event is allowing me to recall the sense of wonder that was so much a part of my childhood when space exploration was a big part of our national conversation and aspirations for our future, which included flying cars, video phones and visions of a space station orbiting the Earth around 1992.
Well, we got two of them so far. I do wish the International Space Station featured a swank hotel lobby with a martini bar. I’m sure the astronauts in the space station wish the same thing, but you can’t have everything … yet.
I was a month from my 4th birthday when Apollo 11 landed on the moon, so my memory of that time is unreliable at best. Yet I can recall my parents sitting my sister and I right in front of the television that evening and a peculiar sense of awe as we watched news coverage of the event.
Even at that age, at some simple level, I grasped that I was witnessing something of great importance, even if I was too young to comprehend the full significance of the event.
My wife’s grandfather would never be convinced that it all wasn’t an elaborate hoax.
When I relate this experience to people, there is a part of me that is frustrated that I will never be able to convey the sense of wonder that the Apollo missions had on me and my classmates at school.
The astronauts, the rocket launches at Cape Canaveral, the ocean rescues and the references to the mystical place called Houston (I didn’t connect the city with Texas until much later in life) all fed my imagination throughout my childhood.
It’s been a good long while since an event in space exploration has so fired my imagination in quite the same way, but somehow the Rosetta spacecraft and Philae lander have accomplished that very thing.
Even the few setbacks that have occurred in the past month has not dimmed my optimism nor diminished my anticipation for future exploration.
I’m not smart enough to be there. I’ll leave that to those frumpy young people. Nevertheless, my faith in our progress is restored.

I got the “moving-my-kid-into-college” blues

I did not anticipate how difficult it would be to move my hostdaughter into her University of Kentucky dorm room last Saturday morning.

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This has been a very event-filled summer for Pam and I as hosts of high school exchange students for the past five years.
For reasons good and, in one case, tragic, this summer, four of our five hostdaughters have returned to their Kentucky home for a period of time.
Because Pam and I have no children of our own, we have a tendency to form strong bonds with these young women and have worked to extend our relationships beyond the exchange year.
Our efforts, apparently, have paid off.
Iris, our first hostdaughter, has spent the entire summer with us. She is doing a work internship until the end of September.
Lea, our youngest from Switzerland, completed her school year at Nicholas County and returned home.
She has vowed to return, and I believe her.
Lotta came back for a week to wish a dear friend rest.
But with the beginning of the new school year, Pam and I are taking a break from hosting a high school student. That does not mean a quiet household, though. Maria, our hostdaughter from Norway, enjoyed her time in Kentucky so much that she has enrolled as a freshman at UK.
If I examined this closely, I think this is a thing Pam and I hoped would happen with one of our hostdaughters eventually. However, on even closer inspection, my wife and I may have wanted this to happen for different reasons.
At least that is the impression I have when I reflect on my unanticipated reaction when we were packing the car Saturday morning to take Maria to her dorm.
It began when Iris and I were figuring out the best way to pack Maria’s dorm stuff in the back of my Ford Escape. Stacking cardboard boxes on top of each other, I found myself recalling how I managed to fit five wooden crates of records, a stereo system and a whole dorm room’s worth of other junk into the back of my Nissan Sentra.
I even bragged to no one in particular about how there was only room for myself in the driver’s seat when I finished.
Arriving on campus, we followed the signs guiding us to Maria’s dorm, unloaded her belongings to a long table, then moved everything in. My first thought upon entering the room was how I would decorate ….
No, wait, that’s not accurate. My first thought was that of a middle-aged curmudgeon thinking about how easy kids have it today, what with a room already equipped with a kitchen sink, microwave oven, stainless steel mini-fridge with attached freezer, and its own full bathroom. And a private bedroom with a mattress that wasn’t a lumpy back hazard!
But my impulse afterward was to start suggesting the best way to lay out the room – the way I would do it. A tapestry across the ceiling, some cool posters, maybe a futon…
And, if she was smart, what she should do next is … at which point I have to give myself credit.
I suppressed that impulse.
In the end, I did the smart thing. I got the heck on back home.
It still didn’t stop me wondering what she was doing, who she was meeting, wishing I could be there to warn her against all the mistakes she’ll make, and being jealous, too. How I’d love to experience the fear and uncertainty that comes with being young and on your own for the first time.
(Okay, I just wish I was young…)
These were my feelings for a young lady I have only known for two or three years. I can only imagine how parents moving their child … sorry, kids, I can’t think of a better term … into a college dorm or apartment for the first time.
Like I said, I didn’t imagine how difficult it would be to keep my mouth shut and let this experience be hers — not mine.
How I would love to be her college guide so that she makes the most of her years at the University. But there is a point where I have to let her make her own mistakes …

That’s going to be hard.

Kentuckyana Jones and the Cave City Wax Museum

****** Note to Readers of this story: Since this story’s publication in August 2014, I have endeavored to verify the developments that Michael Todd Barrick, aka Kentuckyana Jones, outlined in our interview. I make frequent trips to Cave City, Kentucky and often journey the highway which runs right by the former Cave City Wax Museum. To the best of my knowledge, nothing has been done to rehab the property, though I have received unconfirmed reports that its contents, whatever they may have been, were removed at some point. Who knows when that could have happened. Furthermore, there is no indication that Mr. Barrick has followed through on his grand plans for Patriot trees. So, visitor, take what you read in these next paragraphs with only a few grains of salt. There seemed at the time, to me at least, a good faith effort on Kentuckyana’s part to realize a dream of reality TV stardom on E, A&E or some other ailing television channel desperate for original material. But the dream has, as yet, not materialized. So enjoy the following not so much as factual information, though the events of that Thursday afternoon did happen, but rather as fictional entertainment featuring an also-ran in the sweepstakes for a place in contemporary Kentucky folklore.****

At Battlegrove Cemetery Thursday morning, 2014, people may have witnessed an unusual sight — a camera crew at the military memorial with their lenses fixed on Bob Owen and a smiling, bearded stranger gathering a soil sample from beneath a veteran’s plaque.


Or, on Thursday afternoon, people might have seen the same camera crew entering the Maysville Community and Technical College, Licking Valley Campus’ Art Gallery following the bearded stranger with one arm draped around the shoulder of local artist Herby Moore.


People didn’t have to look far to find out the name of the stranger. It was written in florid script on three large vans out in the parking lot.

Kentuckyana Jones, The “Extreme” Treasure Hunter.

Jones, a business entrepreneur and trader in antiques, treasures, and rare collectibles, was a featured guest star on an episode of “Barry’d Treasure,” a reality show on the A&E channel starring celebrity antique dealer Barry Weiss.

The episode, “Kentuckyana Jones and the Emperor’s Vessel” aired in March 2014.

But it wasn’t for another person’s television show that brought Jones to Cynthiana last Thursday.

The Bowling Green native was in town shooting footage for a potential television series of his own.

Jones said that a part of the show  would chronicle his adventures searching for valuable artifacts. The objects that he sought in Cynthiana, however, were not hidden or even remotely hard to find. The sample of Herby Moore’s paintings, which Jones wanted, were all in plain sight in Moore’s space at the LVC Art Gallery.

Unlike other places he plans to visit, Jones did not choose Cynthiana at random. He has a very special connection to Moore and, therefore, to this community.

“I bought Herby’s wax museum in Cave City,” Jones said.

Jones has been friends with Moore since the sale of the wax museum. Growing up in Bowling Green, Jones was very familiar with the tourist attraction in Cave City. But he never thought anything else about it until one day when he saw that the building was for sale. It was a spontaneous decision to make an offer for it, Jones said.

“It may not be the way most people do business, but I like to fly by the seat of my pants sometimes. I like taking risks. America was built on the shoulders of entrepreneurs who’ve done the same thing,” Jones said.

Moore’s paintings will feature prominently in Jones’ long-term plans to transform the wax museum into a new area tourist attraction. He intends to create a museum dedicated to America’s veterans, a subject that Jones is as passionate about as he is negotiating a good price for an artifact.

Honoring veterans will also be a critical part of the show that Jones and his film crew are currently shooting.

“We’re dedicating a large chunk of our show’s time talking with the families of veterans who have already gone on. At the end of every show, we will have a ceremony where we go to the veteran’s gravesite with a family member and gather a soil sample,” Jones said.

Jones paid a visit to local Cynthiana resident Bob Owen on Thursday morning to talk about Brig. Gen. Jack Henry Owen, Bob’s uncle, who passed away about a year and a half ago.

During his military career, Gen. Owen flew a B-17 bomber in the European theater of World War II and survived two years as a prisoner of war, Bob Owen said.

There was no particular reason that Gen. Owen was selected over any other veteran, Jones said. “Herby is a friend of Bob’s and suggested he be a good subject.”

Jones has been to seven other states so far and done the same thing.

The soil sample taken from Battlegrove Cemetery will be stored in a vault for the time being. It is Jones’ ambition to get soil samples from all 50 states.

When he has accomplished that goal, he plans to donate those samples to the Patriot Soil Project, a national effort to honor veterans which Jones ardently supports.

The Patriot Soil Project is accepting donations of soil samples from the graves of veterans across the nation.

When completed, the project’s organizers will combine the soil from the gravesites of fallen veterans from all 50 states and used to plant a living memorial, a “Patriot Tree,” on the White House lawn, Jones said.

Other Patriot Trees will be planted on the grounds of the governors’ mansions throughout the nation.

For those interested in donating funds or soil samples to this effort, visit the website for more information.

If all goes well, Jones has one more idea in mind:

He wants to plant a “Patriot Tree” on the grounds of the veterans’ museum in Cave City when renovation work is complete.

In the meantime, though, Jones will be traveling and meeting with folks, saving the memories on film and in the charateristic “thumbs-up” pictures he is taking with his guests and friends.

Another version of The American Dream : From Cambodian refugee to American army veteran

When one imagines an American army veteran, it’s not likely that the image they see is that of Leon La. In fact, when he joined the army in his early 30s, there were only a few recruits in basic training that were even close to his age.
There is not very much that is typical about La. When people meet him at his family business, the Something Different nail salon in Harrison Square, one cannot imagine that this soft spoken and gentle man is not only an army veteran, but that his two tours of duty in Afghanistan and Iraq involved just a little less risk than his own childhood in his native Cambodia.

La was the son of a farming family in Kampuchea (Cambodia) during the brief rule of the Khmer Rouge regime. His father and mother worked their farm, which had rice paddies and vegetable gardens in a village not all that far from the Thailand border.
In 1978, Vietnamese troops invaded the country and, during a one-year civil war, managed to overthrow the Khmer Rouge leadership in power.
La was 7 years old at the time. He didn’t know about the political climate in his home country, only that one day there was quiet and the next there was sporadic gun fire and explosions.
It wasn’t a safe time at all to be in country.
When things became increasingly unsettled, La’s uncle suggested that the family escape the war by crossing the border into the relative safety of Thailand.
“My uncle helped a lot of Cambodian families across the Thai border to escape the war,” La said.
Despite the obvious dangers in staying, La’s father and mother did not want to lose their farm. It had been in the family for generations and it was the only possession they had that was really worth something, he said.
“If they abandoned it, they would have lost it forever,” La said.
They chose to remain behind, but his father entrusted La to his uncle’s care. In the middle of the night, La joined his uncle’s family on an overnight run to the Thai border.
La understood the danger of this undertaking. The family was at risk whether they were discovered by Vietnamese troops or Khmer Rouge forces.
La left home with only the clothes he was wearing. He didn’t have shoes.
In the night there pockets of random shooting, jungle noises and more raw fear than he had ever experienced in his life.
“We spent the entire night sneaking through the jungle. My uncle knew the way to go, but we were always peering around trees and making sure all was clear before tip-toeing to the next place that offered cover,” La said.
Fortune smiled upon La’s family that night. They arrived in Thailand while managing to evade random patrols and border guards trying to keep people from escaping.
His one regret: there was no way a message could be sent to let his family know he had survived the night.
His uncle’s family was his family now and they took up residence in a small staked out area of a Cambodian refugee camp in Thailand.
This small space would be La’s home for the next two years.
Though La managed to escape the war that ravaged his own country, in Thailand they were stuck in the worst kind of limbo.
United Nations relief agencies, the Red Cross and other non-governmental organizations provided medicine, supplies and other basic necessities, but that was it. There was no place to go, nothing to do except buy food from the Thai markets and exist.
“We were under guard and were not supposed to leave the camp. Not that we had any place to go,” La said. “If we were caught away from the camp or trying to escape into the mainland, we risked being beaten or even killed.”
The only hope they had during this long wait came from a sponsor they acquired from the United States.
It was a pastor from a church in Providence, Rhode Island.
Their sponsor provided some of the aid that they needed at the camp. And then they brought the family to the United States.
“It was a real culture shock. I was 10 and all I had known was my little corner of Asia. I knew rice paddies and gardens, I knew war and surviving as a refugee. And suddenly, there was none of that. I didn’t even understand the language enough to know the difference between ‘yes’ and ‘no’,” La said.
That became very important early when a kind woman offered him a cookie, which he wanted very badly.
“I didn’t know how to say ‘yes’ and I told her ‘no’ and she put away the cookie. It tore me up,” La said, laughing at the memory.
His family were welcomed by members of the pastor’s church in Providence. They provided the means for the family to transition to life in the United States.
Because La was an orphan refugee, not even knowing if his mother and father had survived the war, he qualified for state and federal assistance through the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, which helped them build a new life here in the United States.
In his late 20s, he earned a professional degree from the International Academy of Design and Technology in Florida. In 2002, mere months after the 9-11 tragedy, he earned his United States citizenship and at age 32, enlisted in the U.S. army.
La served eight years, including two tours of duty on the front lines in Afghanistan and two tours in Iraq.
Returning to war torn locations after a few years of relative peace was an interesting experience for La.
“I found that I could adapt to those conditions without much problem. But then, the army gave us food and uniforms and equipment. I had none of that when I was seven,” La said.
He spent three years in Fort Knox, Kentucky, where he met his wife and the state that now serves as his home.
“I received so much assistance and aid from this country. I was proud to give something back to this country before I could go on into my own business,” La said.
Now, in Cynthiana, he feels free to pursue his own version of “The American Dream.”

Several years after he left Cambodia in the darkness, he discovered that his parents and siblings were still alive. His mother has since passed away, but his father still lives. He has returned to visit on several occasions.
But La’s home, and his family, are here in the United States.